Every year heat kills tens of thousands of people. Their breathing grows shallow, their heart rates flutter, their muscles spasm, and then they die. Heat killed over 100,000 people in 2018, when high temperatures broiled the European Union.

A new study suggests that climate change was responsible for many of those deaths. The paper, published Monday in Nature Climate Change, scrutinized summertime deaths in 43 countries between 1991 and 2018—the largest collection of heat mortality data ever assembled.

The researchers estimate that higher temperatures driven by greenhouse gas emissions caused more than half the heat-related deaths in several countries, including Thailand, Peru, and the Philippines. On average, climate change was at fault for 37 percent of heat-related deaths. The world has only warmed around 2 degrees Fahrenheit so far, but that’s already enough to kill roughly 100,000 people every year, if you apply this paper’s estimate to the entire world.

There are, however, some pretty big holes in the data for anyone trying to do that kind of extrapolation. There’s simply no data on heat-related deaths from huge swaths of the world, including major population centers in equatorial Africa, and India.

Read the full article about climate change-related deaths by Nathanael Johnson at Grist.