In the impact sample, the study research team compared the intensity of services provided to reading groups at different reading levels to measure the extent to which support is more intense for students reading below grade level. For the impact analysis, the study research team estimated effects of assignment to reading interventions for students at the margins of eligibility for those services who read below grade level.
This report provides new information on the prevalence of RtI practices in elementary schools, illustrates the implementation of RtI practices for groups of students at different reading levels, and provides evidence on effects of one key element of RtI: assigning students to receive reading intervention services. The findings show, for the 2011-2012 school year, that:
- A majority of schools in the 13-state reference sample (56 percent) reported full implementation of the RtI framework, while a higher proportion of impact sample schools (86 percent) in those states reported full implementation.
- Schools in the impact sample adjusted reading services to provide more support to students reading below grade-level standards than to those at or above the standards.
- For those students just below the school-determined eligibility cut point in Grade 1, assignment to receive reading interventions did not improve reading outcomes; it produced negative impacts.
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